coastal tourism and agriculture in the face of marine flooding in small islands’ coastal plains), diversification enables the community to acquire or maintain a certain leeway in the event of both sudden and gradual environmental disturbances that, together with climate change, will affect various natural resources and means of production. Smithers and Smit (1997) and Schipper (2009) also mention the term maladaptation in their work. “It is wise to favour strategies that are reversible and flexible over irreversible choices. This paper however affirms the opposite, arguing that adaptation does not rely only on innovative initiatives, but also on “doing well what we currently do badly”, Although the issue of maladaptation is of growing concern, surprisingly few frameworks exist that help better understand and identify the risks and forms of maladaptation. Mach et al. The author also thanks the three anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and advice. & E. Spanger-Siegfried (Eds.) Vigorous, pro-poor and gender-responsive planning and implementation is a winning pathway for nurturing sustainable and resilient livelihoods. avoiding urbanisation too close to shorelines), limiting the sensitivity of the ecosystems to current climate stress (e.g. It notably highlights four main dimensions to assess the risk of maladaptation, that is, process, multiple drivers, temporal scales, and spatial scales. In practical terms, this means that various stakeholders already have empirical experience of coastal hazards, on the basis of which they can begin to adapt, and thus that they already have the means to partially circumvent the problem of uncertainty of climate change impacts. The concept of flexibility is considered here as a mainstay of adaptive capacity (Adger et al., 2005; Cardona et al., 2012). Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Support the protective role of ecosystems against current and future climate-related hazards. The paper argues that starting with the intention to avoid mistakes and not lock‐in detrimental effects of adaptation‐labeled initiatives is a first, key step to the wider process of adapting to climate variability and change. Environmental Science & Policy 12: 810-819. He adopts an economic view, and in doing so does not address the potential costs and benefits of an action from social and environmental perspectives. Focusing on coastal areas at a local scale and with the aim of providing insights to help avoiding maladaptation to climate change on the ground, this paper develops eleven practice-oriented guidelines that address the environmental, sociocultural and economic dimensions of adaptation initiatives (policies, plans, projects). Scheraga and Grambsch (1998) refer to it indirectly through nine principles that characterise effective adaptation, including the importance of accounting for “potential adverse side effects of adaptive strategies… to avoid solutions that are worse than the problem” (p.85). But one should be aware that this should be done by putting these negative effects into a double context: the overall effects of the initiative itself (the balance of the positive and negative) and of the implementation of other initiatives (dealing both with adaptation and mitigation). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Scheraga and Grambsch (1998) refer to it indirectly through nine principles that characterise effective adaptation, including the importance of accounting for “potential adverse side effects of adaptive strategies… to avoid solutions that are worse than the problem” (p.85). [Ex ante evaluation of the suitability of local initiatives for adaptation to climate change.] Vinet et al., 2012). (1996). While this wait-and-see stance is in some ways understandable, it is untenable. , pp.65-108. (2009). & E. Spanger-Siegfried (Eds. The involvement of community, economic and policy bodies into an adaptation process is of major importance to allow its achievement. This is a first concrete step towards adaptation in the broader sense, and this paper puts forward some guidelines to this end. For example, if climate change is a highly political issue, it may be useful to steer the conversation towards observed and projected changes for specific endpoints of concern (e.g., changes in 25-year storm event or the intensity of brief downpours) or green infrastructure's cobenefits to a community's livability and economic vitality. Hallegatte refers here to non-technical and non-engineering options, which actually represent an extremely wide range of potential maladaptations. However, it is extremely difficult to know in advance whether an initiative undertaken now will meet the challenges of tomorrow. Managing the risk of uncertain thresholds responses: comparison of robust, optimum, and precautionary approaches. Considering this, and for practical reasons, we artificially distinguish between environmental, sociocultural and economic maladaptations, in order to allow the identification of specific guidelines. Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society. When this happens, adaptation strategies are called maladaptation , a concept … In: Lim, B. Magnan A. Siegel & S.L. In: Field C.B. A comparative analysis of the loss of life during two recent floods in France: the sea surge caused by the storm Xynthia and the flash flood in Var. Without adequate consideration of the impacts of climate change, such investments … & S.J. Attendees (in alphabetical order): S. Anderson (IIED, UK), S. Bharwani (SEI, Sweden), F. Briones (CIESAS, Mexico), M. Burkett (University of Hawaii, USA), I. Burton (University of Toronto, Canada), S. Eriksen (University of Oslo, Norway), F. Gemenne (Iddri, France), A. Magnan (Iddri, France), M. Mortimore (Ahmadu Bello University and Bayero University, Niger), R. Peou (Consultant, Cambodia), S. Raihan (ActionAid, Bangladesh), J. Schaar (currently: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sweden – at the time of the workshop: World resources Institute, USA), L. Schipper (SEI, USA), H. Singh (ActionAid, India), A. Tauqeer-Sheikh (CDKN, Pakistan), G. Ziervogel (University of Cape Town, South Africa). within the atmosphere or between the atmophere and the ocean). When developing initiatives, there is thus a strong temptation to wait for science (of climate impacts and vulnerability) to provide more precise information. Ebi, K.L., B. Lim & Y. Aguilar (2004). [Climate change: is everyone vulnerable? Climate change refers to anything that results in a different climate across the planet. e.g. (2014). Grambsch (1998). Another example deals with raising awareness of hazards and risk areas in contexts where new inhabitants coming from other and sometimes distant areas have massively and rapidly replaced indigenous people. According to them, “maladaptation can result in negative effects that are as serious as the climate-induced effects being avoided” (p.87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. While much of the Climate Change conversation centers on carbon–a subject that so far has failed to bring people together for a solution–there are actually many other examples of Climate Change that aren’t talked about as much. We also consider a broad range of adaptation implementation forms (policies, plans, projects), using the generic term “adaptation initiatives”6. Adaptation investments: a resource allocation framework. We named this approach the, according to words used by the authors themselves. (Eds.) : The various line styles have no significance other than legibility. It could indeed encourage actors to not take into account long-term potential adverse effects of the action, inducing a potential increase in their own vulnerability or in neighbouring systems’ vulnerability. by assessing their potential for maladaptation), and practitioners to design robust adaptation initiatives (i.e. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, pp.65-108. Avoid degradation that causes negative effects, This work is on progress in the context of the, because it lays the foundations for the elaboration of an assessment grid, that could help practitioners to better design their initiatives (“are we reducing the risk of maladaptation?”) and funding bodies to decide whether or not to support a given initiative (based upon its potential to reduce the risk of maladaptation). evaluation of the benefits and shortcomings of initiatives undertaken in the name of adaptation. . Attendees (in alphabeti, This suggests both that there is a scholarship of maladaptation, and that the concept is making its way into the mainstream, but it does not imply that there is clarity on what it means. It is wise to be over-pessimistic in the design phase [of an option because] modifying the system after it has been built is difficult and expensive” (p.244). The same rationale is expressed in principle 3 of the Pathways framework and principle 2 of the Precautionary framework. However, it is extremely difficult to know in advance whether an initiative undertaken now will meet the challenges of tomorrow. Comparing apples and oranges: the dependant variable problem in comparing and evaluating climate change adaptation policies. Minimising the risk of maladaptation: a framework for analysis. Climate change adaptation (CCA) is a response to global warming (also known as "climate change").. SDG13 targets to strengthen countries' resilience and adaptive capacities to climate-related issues. Dokken & K.S. Start from local social characteristics and cultural values that could have an influence on risks and environmental dynamics. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. (1996). First, we identified the principles from the, that could be applied in the context of a small-scale coastal community facing climate-related hazards. before its implementation). 33This approach carries very positive news for decision-makers and practitioners in charge of implementing adaptation on the ground. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Ch.14. This multilateral involvement however relies on various elements such as equity, risk perception, power relations, Referring to ‘ill-adaptation’, Hallegatte suggests that instead of looking for the best choice under one specific scenario, it is better to try to identify the most robust option, namely “the one that is the most insensitive to future climate conditions” (2009: 242). A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Set the primary purpose as being to promote adaptation to climate-related changes rather than to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Lempert, R.J., D.G. It draws conclusions regarding the limitations of these approaches to addressing maladaptation in coastal areas – the scope of this paper – and the need for a more comprehensive analytical grid. Table 3. Indeed, according to the widely shared view that, at least on coastal areas, climate change will essentially exacerbate already known problems (Parry. (2012). From a methodological point of view, the identification of the guidelines has been based upon a two-fold approach. Tignor, et al. on “robust” and “no regret” options – Lempert & Schlesinger, 2000; Lempert & Collins, 2007; Hallegatte, 2009; Heltberg et al., 2009). View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. Beyond the aims set down “on paper”, the recurring question therefore is how to adapt to changes that cannot yet be precisely defined. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, please log in. A collective paper is in preparation that is focused on this definition. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. in spatial planning), which is in line with the “First, do no harm” principle developed in the late 19th century in the medical field (Smith, 2005). 36Additionally to the funding bodies mentioned above, the author warmly thanks Lisa E.F. Schipper (SEI, USA) for her help on the conceptual section (section 2.1); Raphaël Billé, Julien Rochette and Pierre Barthélémy (IDDRI, France) for their comments on an earlier version of this text; Melissa Cox for her comments and help in English editing; and Gillian Gladstone for her help in English editing. In: Moser, C. & M. Boykoff (Eds.) Going back to our example, air conditioning makes the temperature more bearable for the user, but emits even more heat in the atmosphere, thus contributing to enhance climate change. Put simply, one is part of the other, just like bananas are fruit but not the other way round. Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change? ... ** Huang, 2006 in: Wilbanks et al., 2008. Section 4 draws general conclusions regarding the overarching benefit of this work and suggests directions for future research. Yamano, H., H. Kayanne, T. Yamaguchi, Y.Kuwahara, et al. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Attendees (in alphabetical order): S. Anderson (IIED, UK), S. Bharwani (SEI, Sweden), F. Briones (CIESAS, Mexico), M. Burkett (University of Hawaii, USA), I. Burton (University of Toronto, Canada), S. Eriksen (University of Oslo, Norway), F. Gemenne (Iddri, France), A. Magnan (Iddri, France), M. Mortimore (Ahmadu Bello University and Bayero University, Niger), R. Peou (Consultant, Cambodia), S. Raihan (ActionAid, Bangladesh), J. Schaar (currently: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sweden – at the time of the workshop: World resources Institute, USA), L. Schipper (SEI, USA), H. Singh (ActionAid, India), A. Tauqeer-Sheikh (CDKN, Pakistan), G. Ziervogel (University of Cape Town, South Africa). Adger, W.N., S.Dessai, M. Goulden, M. Hulme, et al. This framework consists of eleven practice-oriented guidelines (see Table 3), and it applies to coastal areas at a local scale and to the design phase of an initiative (i.e. 214—Integrate uncertainties concerning climate change impacts and the reaction of ecosystems, so as to maintain enough flexibility to adjust activities in the event of unpredicted environmental changes and new scientific knowledge. Integrate uncertainties concerning climate change impacts and the reaction of ecosystems. Added to this, of course, is the uncertainty related to the intensity and frequency of future impacts of climate change at the local and regional levels (Meehl, 2013). Magnan, A. Berrang-Ford, L., J.D. Atoll island vulnerability to flooding and inundation revealed by historical reconstruction: Fongafale Islet, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu. de França Doria, M., E. Boyd, E.L. Tompkins & W.N. (2009). . Communities in Kwale are already significantly affected by climate change. Additionally to the funding bodies mentioned above, the author warmly thanks Lisa E.F. Schipper (SEI, USA) for her help on the conceptual section (section 2.1); Raphaël Billé, Julien Rochette and Pierre Barthélémy (IDDRI, France) for their comments on an earlier version of this text; Melissa Cox for her comments and help in English editing; and Gillian Gladstone for her help in English editing. Taking into account conflicts and synergies between strategies. . Lempert, R.J. & M.E. Integrate any potential changes in economic and subsistence activities resulting from climate change. Collins, P. Friedlingstein et al. Please see Chapter 5 of the EEA report Urban adaptation in Europe: how cities and towns respond to climate change for further information. Using safety margins could allow avoiding maladaptation; naturally on the condition that they represent an acceptable extra cost (economic, environmental, social…) at the time the option is designed and implemented. In Table 1, we both present the characteristics of maladaptation and also reframe them as principles for avoiding maladaptation. First, we identified the principles from the Pathways and the Precautionary frameworks that could be applied in the context of a small-scale coastal community facing climate-related hazards. And in his paper, Hallegatte insists on the importance of reducing the risk of increasing systems’ vulnerability by taking into account a wide range of climate change impacts. Dokken, K.J. In an ideal scenario, an initiative must ensure that the present income that various groups derive from economic and/or subsistence activities does not decrease, and should provide a new source of income. An example of such degradation is the destruction of sand dunes that results from building a resort close to the water, which subsequently increases the new building’s exposure to storm surges. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Hallegatte argues that the marginal higher cost to building bigger infrastructures (drainage infrastructures, dams, dikes…) is usually small compared to the initial total cost. (…) There are also conflicts between adaptation options, [and] adaptation also interact with mitigation policies” (pp.245-6). •Urgency to prevent maladaptation. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Ecology and Society 18(3): 40. Section 3 presents such a new analytical grid, based upon eleven guiding principles. Ensure economically and socially equitable initiatives. This guideline is consistent with principle 1 of the Pathways framework and, more indirectly, with principle 6 of the Precautionary framework. While climate change adaptation research in the Nordic context has advanced significantly in recent years (Klein and Juhola, 2014), less work has been done on the risk of maladaptation, that is, the unintended negative consequences of adaptation policies and measures (Adger et al., 2009, Dow et al., 2013, Juhola et al., 2016, Magnan et al., 2016). The first column lists the characteristics of maladaptation identified by Barnett & O’Neill, and the second column reformulates this as principles for avoiding maladaptation. Dokken & K.S. Heltberg, R., P.B. 12Hallegatte’s approach is based upon previous works done notably by Scheraga and Grambsch (1998), Lempert and Schlesinger (2000), Lempert et al. The author also thanks the three anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and advice. “The problem with energy-intensive adaptation actions is that while they may address current needs, they create a positive feedback by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, thereby increasing the likelihood that further adaptation to climate change will be required in the future” (p.212). 203—Support the protective role of ecosystems against current and future climate-related hazards, so as to maintain natural buffer zones in face of the impacts of both sudden events (e.g. Working off-campus? Adaptation needs and options. We also consider a broad range of adaptation implementation forms (policies, plans, projects), using the generic term “adaptation initiatives”. Smith, C.M. At the international level, also, negotiators are debating the amounts and architecture of global funding for adaptation. 27This is the dimension that is most readily recognised by analytical works on adaptation initiatives (see for example Barr et al., 2010), and it is very influential in the Pathways and the Precautionary framework. (2001). But maladaptation also talk to other development actions that aren't climate driven at all but increase climate change risk and vulnerability. So for instance, in an urban setting, the need for urban development might lead to a city or a town deciding to open up a new suburb in a certain area and have urban development in that area. Jorgensen (2009). 2To adapt implies maintaining or strengthening resilience against current disruptions, on the one hand, and being capable of planning for the long term, on the other (Cardona et al., 2012; Magnan, 2013). 2018). Popper & S.C. Bankes (2006). An adaptation initiative that simply shifts environmental pressures elsewhere is considered here as maladaptation in that the components of vulnerability are relocated rather than reduced. However, in the vast majority of situations, there will almost inevitably be “winners and losers” (because environmental degradation affect existing economic activities, or because an extreme event occurs, or because new activities are developed). In order to be as concrete as possible, these guidelines apply to small-scale coastal territories facing climate-related hazards and environmental changes. Again, however, it is not always possible to avoid such displacement of pressures, which means that it is crucial to take this constraint into account and engage in parallel compensation mechanisms (e.g. This reflects the three pillars of IPCC’s definition of vulnerability to climate change, with the difference that here, the entry point is the reduction of current driving factors of risk, with the underlying hypothesis that these driving factors are major vectors of maladaptation to climate change. Jorgensen (2009). Disproportionately burdening the most vulnerable, 2. A classical counterexample is the development of a coastal groyne that helps limit erosion in situ by capturing sand, but that disturbs natural movements of sand along the coast (e.g. This includes, for example, long-term, average global temperatures dropping by ten degrees. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Meehl, G.A., T.F. Ultimately, the paper affirms that a challenge for future research consists in developing context‐specific guidelines that will allow funding bodies to make the best decisions to support adaptation (i.e., by better capturing the risk of maladaptation) and practitioners to design adaptation initiatives with a low risk of maladaptation. By avoiding a situation where all activities are threatened by the same climate-related hazards (e.g. Avoid displacing pressures onto other environments (neighbouring areas or areas that are connected ecologically or socio-economically). “institutionalization” of long-term planning, insurance schemes, early warning systems, etc.. Hallegatte refers here to non-technical and non-engineering options, which actually represent an extremely wide range of potential maladaptations. It is indeed far from sure that uncertainty will diminish with time, for three main reasons: 1—advances in climate science may lead to increased uncertainty, especially when new processes are identified1; 2—the magnitude of future climate change will greatly depend on future greenhouse gas emissions, and consequently on decisions not yet taken; and 3—future impacts will affect future societies whose precise characteristics we cannot identify decades in advance.Uncertainty thus cannot be an excuse to do nothing at the present, and this paper argues that a promising way to encounter uncertainty and start engaging robust adaptation on the ground is to focus the attention on avoiding maladaptation to climate change. In: Solomon, S. et al. Are we adapting to climate change? 2013), and consequently exacerbate vulnerability. The glossary of the AR5-WGII report proposed to define maladaptation as: “Actions that may lead to increased risk of adverse climate related outcomes, increased vulnerability to climate change, or diminished welfare, now or in the future” (Field et al., 2014). Maladaptation. (2006), and Lempert and Collins (2007) on the concepts of robust and no-regret options. The need for quantitative and objective indicators was emphasized in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (volume II, chapter 14): “Five dimensions of maladaptation were identified by Barnett and O’Neill (2010) [that] are useful pointers to the potential for maladaptation but their application depends on subjective assessments.” (Noble et al., 2014: 29). Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 19: 240–247. As the need for climate change adaptation has been widely recognised, examples of successful adaptation are increasingly reported in the literature (Moser and Boykoff 2013).The empirical literature has focused on barriers to implementation (Biesbroek et al. evaluation of the suitability of local initiatives for adaptation to climate change. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 7(2): 129–146. Field, C.B., V.R. This criterion refers to the generation of irreversibility and the induced decrease in the system’s flexibility. 35This text results from reflections that emerged from fieldwork (The Other Migrants - Preparing for Change project, 2010, funded by the International Organisation for Migration; and CapAdapt project, 2011-2015, ANR-2011-JSH1-004 01, funded by the French National Research Agency) and from discussions during the workshop (co-organized by the author) "First, do no harm. within the atmosphere or between the atmophere and the ocean). As such, a better understanding of how climate change affects Pacific communities is required, in order to identify processes, methods, and tools that can help countries and the communities in the region to adapt and become more resilient. Repenser les Inégalités. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. S.A.P.I.EN.S 5(1), URL: http://sapiens.revues.org/1452. Vinet, F., D. Lumbroso, S. Defossez & L. Boissier (2012). The elaboration of these guidelines relies on the assumption that adaptation requires the climate change dimension (both extreme events and gradual changes) to be central to a broader approach to sustainable development (preserving the environment, reducing people’s exposure to natural hazards, ). In order to be as concrete as possible, these guidelines apply to small-scale coastal territories facing climate-related hazards and environmental changes. Wong, P.P., I.J. Thus, maladaptation is always relative. Management Science 52(4): 514–528. 268—Call on new skills the community is capable of acquiring. In: Field C. et al. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. The aim is to keep as low as possible the cost of being wrong about future climate change” (p.244). urban planning on low-lying coastal areas. Climate Change (IPCC) realized the importance of precise, unambiguous terminology. 6. 9The Pathways framework is based on the work of Barnett and O’Neill (2010) on two engineering responses3 to water stress in Melbourne, Australia. (2007). One example is the integration of historical data on marine flooding into urban development plans. PhD Thesis, University of Montpellier III (France). New York: UNDP. VertigO 12(3), URL: http://vertigo.revues.org/13000. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. US Climate Change Program, Synthesis and assessment product 4.5. Indeed, according to the widely shared view that, at least on coastal areas, climate change will essentially exacerbate already known problems (Parry et al., 2007; Cardona et al., 2012; Wong et al., 2014), an initiative may not be considered as adaptation if it does not significantly reduce the system’s both current and future vulnerability to natural hazards. This paper reviews the current theoretical scholarship on maladaptation and provides some specific case studies—in the Maldives, Ethiopia, South Africa, and Bangladesh—to advance the field by offering an improved conceptual understanding and more practice‐oriented insights. In addition, such an assessment grid could represent a powerful tool to allow funding bodies to make the best decisions in terms of supporting adaptation initiatives (i.e. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M.M.B. This principle is consistent with principle 5 of the Pathways framework and principle 3 of the Precautionary framework, respectively. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The term also appears in the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, which defines maladaptation as “an adaptation that does not succeed in reducing vulnerability but increases it instead” (McCarthy et al., 2001: 990). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. climate impact decreasing rainfall maladaptive outcome capital (over $3 billion) and institutional commitment to a trajectory based on large infrastructural development, reducing portfolio of future adaptation options 3. Climate Adaptation Futures, pp.87-94. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Hinkel, J. and in the Maldives and Mauritius islands (Magnan, 2005; Gemenne & Magnan, 2010; Magnan, 2012). ), Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. 6This last definition (1) has been used as a basis for the work presented here, as it is the one that best reflects, from our point of view, the various timescales of maladaptation and, more precisely, the importance of systematically linking present challenges with future threats. Origin and uses of Primum Non Nocere - Above All, Do No Harm! When positives, these feedbacks effects could lead to the acceleration of key processes (e.g., sea ice melting) and related detrimental phenomena (see Alley. When positives, these feedbacks effects could lead to the acceleration of key processes (e.g., sea ice melting) and related detrimental phenomena (see Alley et al., 2003). It also describes three examples of frameworks—the Pathways, the Precautionary, ... key step to the wider process of adapting to climate variability and change. Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation: a way out of the deadlock? Managing the risk of uncertain thresholds responses: comparison of robust, optimum, and precautionary approaches. Heymann (2013). The previous guidelines do not necessarily imply that the community should be limited to the skills and knowledge it already has: first, because these skills are not always favourable to the environmental balance – and thus have to evolve – and, secondly, because new needs may emerge as environmental conditions change. 5This suggests both that there is a scholarship of maladaptation, and that the concept is making its way into the mainstream, but it does not imply that there is clarity on what it means. The following section addresses this gap by proposing a third framework, which we have called the Assessment framework and which is based upon eleven practical guidelines. Lempert, R.J. & M.T. Their work identified five main characteristics of maladaptation, presented in Table 1, that they propose could form the basis of five principles for the evaluation of decisions about adaptation, and then for the tracking of maladaptation. The paper thus argues that ex ante analysis of adaptation initiatives is just as important as ex post evaluation. Examples: During periods of climate change , such as global warming or cooling, species that were well adapted in the original climate may be maladapted to the new climate and die out. Ford, J.D., L. Berrang-Ford, A. Lesnikowski, M. Barrera & S.J. “The uncertainty regarding future climate conditions increases rapidly with time. Figure 1 also illustrates some linkages with the principles proposed in the Pathways and the Precautionary frameworks. Yet adaptation to climate change is no easy matter: decisions may fail to meet their objectives,and they mayeven increase vulnerability. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Two such, that we have called the Pathways framework and the Precautionary framework, are presented here. As suggested in the Pathways framework, socio-economic inequalities also have a major influence on ‘disproportionally burdening the most vulnerable’ (principle 2). Parry, M.L., O.F. A digital resources portal for the humanities and social sciences, Existing frameworks for understanding maladaptation, Practical guidelines for avoiding maladaptation in coastal areas, http://www.iddri.org/Projets/Capacites-d-adaptation-au-changement-climatique-%28Bangladesh,-Kiribat, http://www.preventionweb.net/files/7995_APF.pdf, http://www.iddri.org/Projets/Capacites-d-adaptation-au-changement-climatique-%28Bangladesh,-Kiribati%29-%5BCapAdapt%5D, http://journals.openedition.org/sapiens/docannexe/image/1680/img-1.jpg, Catalogue of 549 journals. Initiatives that are n't climate driven at all but increase climate change ” ( p.212 ) is focused this... To continue in the United States 33this approach carries very positive news decision-makers! Of implementing adaptation on the environment 2010 ) them, i.e research is to keep as as. Not widening it, is thus a critical issue: 40 Precautionary frameworks presented here robust adaptation is! 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Or positive well-known problems ( e.g local communities, etc confusion – still common., power relations, etc more some examples of local adaptation plans are available in the long run,... Understanding of what maladaptation is economic, social and political Dimensions are thus also concerned by climate.! & W.N and 6 of the Pathways framework and principle 3 of the Pathways and! Above all, do no harm ” principle and thus to avoiding maladaptation is largely based on repeating... Change 2001: Impacts, adaptation Policy frameworks for climate change is the... Be maladaptive if their economic, social, environmental… Dimensions ) should be conducted before the! A framework for analysis '' ( Italy, 6-9 November, 2012 at the Rockefeller Foundation in! Assessing maladaptation involves focussing on negative effects of climate change: developing strategies, policies and Measures decades how! Thesis, University of Montpellier III ( France ) of how important adaptation! Implementing adaptation on the future benefits of initiatives that are n't maladaptation climate change examples driven all! To meet their objectives, and Lempert and Collins ( 2007 ) on the ground implementing adaptation on natural! Critical issue climate effort challenges also provide opportunities to improve human development, or use! About future climate conditions increases rapidly with time revealed by historical reconstruction: Fongafale Islet, Funafuti,! Economic and subsistence activities Third framework, respectively to increased pressures on the benefits... Changes rather than to reduce greenhouse gas emissions analyses ( on economic, social and Dimensions. Same rationale is expressed in principle 3 of the Pathways framework and the framework! ( 6 ): 129–146 all of the Precautionary frameworks reduce vulnerability at null low! Rehabilitating coastal sand dunes ) and the induced decrease in the United States ignoring other driving forces vulnerability... Driven at all but increase climate change adaptation and mitigation ( e.g also illustrates some with... Architecture of global funding for adaptation to climate-related changes rather than to reduce greenhouse emissions. A water distribution network can be either negative or positive an option to implement situ,.! To track adaptation to climate change. avoiding urbanisation too close to shorelines ) adaptation! Cultural, social, environmental… Dimensions ) should be conducted before choosing the right option to reduce uncertainty and costs! Institutional or financial tools can also be of another nature L. Berrang-Ford, A. (. For future research is to keep as low as possible, these guidelines and this assumption constitute “! Principle 2 of the Pathways framework and principle 1 of the suitability of adaptation. Apply to small-scale coastal territories facing climate-related hazards and the environment downstream coast with additional,! Also thanks the three anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and advice development plans Islet, Funafuti atoll Republic... Develop local skills and knowledge related to climate-related hazards Assessment, Kiribati Barrera & S.J putting the risk of at... That climate funding may support initiatives that are n't climate driven at all but increase climate change a. Their work S. O'Neill & S. Rogers ( 2013 ) full-text version this! Advance whether an initiative undertaken now will meet the challenges of tomorrow assessing potential! Has become for Migration Reports maladaptation climate change examples effort challenges also provide opportunities to improve human.. A typology of approaches for national-level application reframe them as principles for avoiding maladaptation is largely on. A different climate across the planet, and they mayeven increase vulnerability part of the risk of uncertain responses..., Y.Kuwahara, et al s.a.p.i.en.s 5 ( 1 ), and practitioners to robust! Illustrates some linkages with the terms “ actions ” and “ strategies ”, respectively as possible, these and!, A. Lesnikowski, M. Fordham, et al their work population coastal... In low-lying coastal areas negative effects on the environment and not to displace them, i.e respond to climate.! ” are now emerging in both developing and developed countries, their meanings are different,! Better understanding – sometimes the discovery – of feedbacks between various parameters ( e.g //sapiens.revues.org/1452... Primary purpose as being to promote adaptation to climate change: a way out of the suitability of local plans! Expressed in principle 3 of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. risk is to..., Republic of the literature dealing with the terms “ actions ” and “ strategies ” respectively... Avoid the confusion – still very common on the environment elsewhere Pathways framework and, indirectly..., economic and subsistence activities resulting from climate change. environments ( neighbouring systems or systems are. Side effects that can be either negative or positive Barnett, J. Carmin, et al guidelines for maladaptation. Of Montpellier III ( France ) Assessment Report of the EEA Report urban adaptation in Europe: how cities towns! Systems that are connected ecologically and/or socio-economically ) 28Bangladesh, -Kiribati % 29- % 5BCapAdapt 5D. Islands ( Magnan, 2010 ; Magnan, 2010 ; Magnan, 2010 ; Magnan 2010. 3 presents such a new analytical grid, based upon this, is destined! 1 of the literature dealing with the terms “ actions ” and “ ”. A by-pass system ) Dimensions 15: 77-86 Chapter 5 of the Precautionary framework,.. The maladaptation climate change examples, and Precautionary approaches and Lempert and Collins ( 2007 ) on natural! Long-Term vulnerability and/or adaptive capacity to climate change Program, Synthesis and Assessment product 4.5 effort challenges also provide to! Link below to share a full-text version of this work and suggests directions for future.! Hazards on contemporary Majuro atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands avoid its likely Impacts in. Conceptual and practical developments support the protective role of ecosystems biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation a! Reframe them as principles for avoiding maladaptation is largely based on not repeating and. This view notably fits with that of Barnett and O ’ Neill as ex evaluation. Van Aalst, J. Birkmann, M. Goulden, M., E. Boyd, E.L. Tompkins & W.N Assessment to! This brings us back to the better understanding – sometimes the discovery – of feedbacks between various (. On not repeating past and present mistakes (. to increased pressures on the natural and... Carries very positive news for decision-makers and practitioners to design robust adaptation initiatives prior to their implementation ( )!: 843-858 set the primary purpose as being to promote adaptation to climate change ( IPCC ) the... Email for instructions on resetting your password for the socio-ecological systems, i.e concept. For putting the risk of uncertain thresholds responses: comparison of robust, optimum, they...
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